June 27, 2004

History of Lower Manhattan(where I live)

The New York Times > New York Region > The City >
Ground Zero: Before the Fall

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June 27, 2004


Ground Zero: Before the Fall
By ERIC LIPTON

ON a hilly spot, near the edge of the Hudson River shoreline, Jan Jansen Damen used a horse-drawn plow to turn up the sandy soil in the late 1630's as he carefully laid out a farm on the small chunk of the New World that he had been allotted by the Dutch West India Company.


Next Sunday, on that same patch of Lower Manhattan land, Gov. George E. Pataki and other dignitaries will gather for another groundbreaking: the start of the construction of the Freedom Tower, the centerpiece of the new World Trade Center.


The extraordinary calamity that unfolded on the site on Sept. 11, 2001, dominates the nearly four centuries of history separating these two groundbreakings. But the stories that stretch out in between, the stories of the men and women who occupied that land and of the way it has been worked and reworked again and again, are in many ways as big as New York itself.


From early on, this land has been associated with bloodshed: Damen, for example, its first European owner, played a critical role in a decision by the early Dutch colonists to massacre Indians living at two nearby settlements, igniting two years of warfare.


It is history that has also been marred before by ravenous fires, like an inferno in 1776 that destroyed every one of the dozens of homes on the site.


The land has also been a place of momentous celebrations, like the one in 1807, when Robert Fulton launched the world's first commercial steamship ferry from the foot of Cortlandt Street, revolutionizing the way people and goods traveled across the region and even around the globe.


Perhaps most important, it is on the same 16 acres where two towering temples to capitalism would one day be built that New York made its sometimes painful transition from a tiny colonial trading post to the most important metropolis in the world. By the 1850's, the once-rural spot had become an emporium of commerce, manufacturing and global transportation - in other words, a true world trade center. Countless other events, many of modest significance, and others of lasting historical import, unfolded here - including Civil War draft riots in 1863 and the inauguration of long-distance telephone service between New York and Chicago in 1892.


Taken from this perspective, what will take place next Sunday, while certainly a milestone for the site, is more like the turning of a page in an already extremely long book, one far older than the nation.


1643: Pioneers and Bloodshed


Jan Jansen Damen, who came from Holland around 1630 to help set up the new colony, was more than just a simple farmer. The first European owner of what would later become part of the World Trade Center site had much greater ambitions.


Like an early Donald Trump, Damen had a thirst for land and wealth. He pushed aggressively to secure commitments from the Dutch West India Company for grants or leases of property located just north of the barricade that was Wall Street. Below this barrier was all of settled New York, the land where the pioneers had built their crude, wooden-roofed homes.


When trouble came in the form of Indian attacks on settlers, the Dutch governor turned to Damen for advice, naming him in 1641 to New York's first local governing board, known as the Twelve Men.


The board's chairman, David Pietersen De Vries, urged Gov. Willem Kieft to be patient, as the tiny colony, with little in the form of arms or soldiers, was vulnerable and "the Indians, though cunning enough, would do no harm unless harm were done to them."


Damen did not agree. His land, at the edge of the settled area, was particularly vulnerable. In February 1643, accounts written at the time say, Damen and two other members of the Twelve Men entertained the governor with conversation and wine and reminded him that the Indians had not complied with his demands to make reparations for recent attacks. "God having now delivered the enemy evidently into our hands, we beseech you to permit us to attack them," they wrote in Dutch, in a document that survives today.


DeVries tried to calm Governor Kieft: "You go to break the Indians' heads; it is our nation you are about to destroy." But the governor disagreed. It was time, he resolved, "to make the savages wipe their chops."


The assault, which took place about midnight on Feb. 25, 1643, in Jersey City, then called Pavonia, and at Corlears Hook, now part of the Lower East Side, was an extraordinarily gruesome affair. "Infants were torn from their mothers' breasts and hacked to pieces," DeVries relates in his journal. Others "came running to us from the country, having their hands cut off; some lost both arms and legs; some were supporting their entrails with their hands, while others were mangled in other horrid ways too horrid to be conceived." In all, more than 100 were killed.


The region's Indian tribes united against Governor Kieft and the colonists. Damen was nicknamed "the church warden with blood on his hands," and expelled from the local governing board. The governor was ultimately recalled by the Dutch. The colony, over two years of retaliatory attacks, sank to a desperate state.


"Almost every place is abandoned," a group of colonists wrote to authorities in Holland in late 1643. "We, wretched people, must skulk, with wives and children that still survive, in poverty together, in and around the fort at the Manahatas, where we are not safe even for an hour whilst the Indians daily threaten to overwhelm us."


Damen died about 1650. His heirs sold his property to two men: Oloff Stevensen Van Cortlandt, a brewer and one-time soldier in the Dutch West India militia, and Dirck Dey, a farmer and cattle brander. Their names were ultimately assigned to the streets at the trade center site. Damen's was lost to history.


1776: From Fire, a Wasteland


More than a century had passed since the war with the Indians. But as the wind blew hard one night in 1776, moving northwest across Lower Manhattan, another disaster was about to unfold.


The Dutch had long since lost control of New York and the site of the future trade center had taken a much more modern shape. The windmill that a Dutchman named Pieter Mesier had built there in 1682 still stood. But Church Street had been laid out prior to 1695, followed by Cortlandt Street in 1733 and Vesey Street, named after William Vesey, the first rector at Trinity Church, in 1761. On the southern end of the site, reflecting New York's status as a British colony, was Crown Street - which was renamed Liberty Street in 1794.


Rows of small houses occupied by craftsmen and laborers had been built along these muddy, tree-lined streets. A sailboat ferry that departed from the foot of Cortlandt Street connected New York to Paulus Hook, New Jersey, where a two-day stagecoach could be taken to Philadelphia. The marshy land at the edge of Damen's old farm had been filled in, widening the island nearly to Washington Street.


On the windy night of Sept. 21, 1776, all this sense of order was destroyed.


Events started about 1 a.m. on the eastern side of Broadway, near Whitehall Slip. How the fire started was debated for years. Many blamed British soldiers who had occupied the city at the start of the Revolutionary War. Other suggested it was rebels, including Nathan Hale, who was executed for being a spy after being questioned about the fire.


In any case, the consequences were clear. The gusts fanned a small blaze and carried it north and west, toward the trade center site. As the fire crossed Broadway, Trinity Church fell to the flames.


The fire pushed across the houses lining Cortlandt, Dey and Vesey Streets. "Several women and children perished in the fire, their shrieks, joined to the roaring of the flames, the crash of falling houses and the widespread ruin which everywhere appeared, formed a scene of horror grand beyond description, and which was still heightened by the darkness of night," read an account published in The New York Mercury.


The fire was not brought under control until nearly 11 a.m. the next day. From 500 to 1,000 homes, one quarter of the settled city, were ruined.


Reconstruction came, as it had before, but this time, it was not immediate. The site lay untouched for many years, and soon became known as the Burnt District.


1807: Full Steam Ahead


Smoke again rose from the site one September morning in 1807, emanating from what onlookers described as some kind of a sea monster, hissing angrily and splashing about at the Cortlandt Street dock. But this smoke was a plume of progress.


There stood Robert Fulton, aboard the crazy invention that he promised would carry a ship full of passengers on an express trip up the Hudson River to Albany. The Clermont, as Fulton's craft would come to be called, was burning up pine knots as fuel and using the steam to turn a turbine that would paddle the vessel. But as skeptical passengers waited for the cruise to begin, Fulton, who had tried and failed before as an inventor with early models for a submarine and a torpedo, started to sweat. Black smoke poured from the chimney and the engine hissed. The boat lurched forward and stopped.


The chatter among the crowd was that the stunt would be a failure. But Fulton, standing proudly on the deck with eyes flashing, dismissed the naysayers. "Gentlemen, you need not be uneasy; you shall be in Albany before twelve o'clock tomorrow."


After a desperate adjustment of the machinery, the paddles started to turn. In that instant, the world shrank.


Fulton was not the first to build a steamship, but the first to turn a working steamship into a commercial venture. Though the steamboat did not fully replace the commercial sailboat for nearly a century, there at the trade center site, a fundamental shift in civilization had occurred.


Regular steamship service had now been established between the Cortlandt Street pier and Albany. Soon after, a string of other ferry services starting running to a variety of destinations. Piers were built all along the West Side, as steamships could more easily maneuver in the Hudson's open waters. By the middle of the 19th century, the site had become not just the launching point for short regional trips but also the embarkment spot for the nation and the world.


1850's: An Emporium Rises


With tens of thousands of New Yorkers now traveling each year to the Hudson River waterfront, the homes built to replace the Burnt District were quickly being replaced themselves. Taller structures were rising, particularly during 1851, when traffic jams on Cortlandt and Dey grew so intense the city decided to widen the streets.


The new structures were only three or four stories tall. But on the once-sleepy riverside streets emerged an emporium unlike any the world had seen. For the steam engine was not just powering ferries: factories were now using machines to mass-produce goods. The Industrial Revolution had arrived, right at a spot that would one day be called ground zero.


Bigelow Company sold boilers at 85 Liberty, Brill & Lenihan sold pencil cases at 91 Liberty, Otis G. Barnap sold railroad supplies at 93 Liberty and Nathan & Dreyfus sold brass goods at 108 Liberty, while John A. Roebling's Sons Company, the builder of the Brooklyn Bridge, sold wire at 117-121 Liberty. By 1860, an astounding one-third of all exports from the United States and more than two thirds of the imports passed through New York, much of it at the nearby Hudson River piers.


If Liberty Street was a manufacturing mecca, Cortlandt Street was a precursor to Herald Square. Merchants like Richards Kingsland sold looking glasses, Ferdinand Thieriot sold pocket watches, Rea & Pollock sold stoves and S. H. Wakeman offered perfume. Squeezed in between were the barber shops and boarding houses, including one of the city's biggest and most renowned, the Old Merchant's Hotel, at 41 Cortlandt.


Others who set up shop included doctors like Dr. Ralph, at 38 Cortlandt Street, who specialized in cures to "certain delicate diseases," like syphilis and gonorrhea, and Madame Restell, at 148 Greenwich Street, who became the nation's most famous abortionist. Part of Church Street became notorious for its brothels.


But no single place at the site drew more traffic than the chaotic complex of buildings near the corner of Vesey and West Streets. The cluster had started in 1771 under the name Bear Market, with a handful of vendors, angry about being so far from the bustle of Broadway.


But by the mid-19th century, what was now known as Washington Market had morphed into not only the biggest market in the city, but the biggest wholesale produce market in the country. Some 886 different stands sold fish, meats, poultry, preserves, coffee, butter, eggs, fruit, nuts and countless other items. The spot was so popular that merchants erected shanties on the sidewalk and then into West Street, turning the city's most congested street into a narrow passageway.


Piles of oyster shells, rotting vegetables, putrid meat and fish, as well as tons of trash dumped from the ships and manure from horse-drawn carriages, produced an odor that in summer was unbearable. Blood and animal refuse, the byproduct of butchering, flowed into the sewers. "A plague spot demanding excision," the Metropolitan Board of Health declared in 1866, launching a campaign to clean up the market. This led to the opening of annexes on West Street further north, including the precursor to what is still called the meatpacking district.


Thanks to that burst of commerce, New Yorkers began to feel a certain bravado. The tiny Dutch colony had by 1870 hatched into a metropolis (comprising both New York and Brooklyn, still separate cities) of 1.3 million. Trinity Church, rebuilt twice since the 1776 fire, was still the city's tallest structure. But something called the office building was arriving on scene. Starting in 1890, when the New York World tower opened across Broadway from the trade center site, it was the first to grab the crown of "world's tallest, " which would be passed around the neighborhood. The course was now clear. New York was charging ahead, and its commercial towers, not its churches, would dominate the sky.


"We are not permitted to take a narrow view of its future greatness," said the New York Harbor Commission report of 1854. It seemed to the commission that New York's "commerce will be greater than that of any city in ancient or in modern times, that it must become the centre of trade and exchanges, the storehouse and metropolis of the commercial world."


The Port Authority in the 1960's used just such breathless statements when it proposed the World Trade Center. "A new era of commerce will dawn on old Mannahatta when the Trade Center rises," a Port Authority brochure said, adding, "the island and its people, however, are accustomed to new eras."


Eric Lipton, a reporter for The New York Times, is the author, with James Glanz, of "City in the Sky: The Rise and Fall of the World Trade Center.''

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Juin 27, 2004


La Terre Zéro: Avant l'automne
Par ERIC LIPTON

N une tache accidentée, près du bord du shoreline de fleuve de Hudson, janv. Jansen Damen a utilisé une charrue hippomobile pour indiquer le sol arénacé vers la fin de 1630's pendant qu'il présentait soigneusement une ferme sur le petit gros morceau du nouveau monde qu'il avait été réparti par Dutch West India Company.


Le dimanche prochain, sur cette même pièce rapportée de terre inférieure de Manhattan, E. Pataki de Gov. George et d'autres dignitaries recueilleront pour des autres groundbreaking: le début de la construction de la tour de liberté, la pièce maîtresse du nouveau centre commercial mondial.


La calamité extraordinaire qui a dévoilé sur l'emplacement sur septembre 11, 2001, domine les presque quatre siècles de l'histoire séparant ces deux groundbreakings. Mais les histoires qui s'étendent hors de dans l'intervalle, les histoires des hommes et les femmes qui ont occupé cette terre et de la manière cela a été fonctionné et retouché à plusieurs reprises, sont de beaucoup de manières aussi grandes que New York lui-même.


De dès l'abord, cette terre a été associée au carnage: Damen, par exemple, son premier propriétaire européen, a joué un rôle critique dans une décision par les premiers colons hollandais aux Indiens de massacre vivant à deux règlements voisins, mettant à feu deux ans de guerre.


C'est une histoire qui également a été troublée avant par les feux ravenous, comme un inferno en 1776 qui a détruit chaque un des douzaines de maisons sur l'emplacement.


La terre a également été un endroit des célébrations importantes, comme celle de 1807, quand Robert Fulton a lancé le premier bac commercial du navire à vapeur du monde du pied de la rue de Cortlandt, révolutionnant les personnes de manière et les marchandises ont voyagé à travers la région et même autour du globe.


Peut-être le plus important, il est sur les mêmes 16 acres où on construirait deux temples trés hauts au capitalisme un jour que New York a fait à sa transition parfois douloureuse à partir d'un comptoir commercial colonial minuscule à la métropole la plus importante au monde. Par le 1850's, la tache une fois-rurale était devenue un emporium de commerce, de fabrication et de transport global - en d'autres termes, un véritable centre commercial mondial. Innombrable d'autres événements, beaucoup d'importance modeste, et d'autres de l'importation historique durable, ont dévoilé ici - comprenant des émeutes d'ébauche de guerre civile en 1863 et l'inauguration du service téléphonique de fond entre New York et Chicago en 1892.


Pris de cette perspective, ce qui aura lieu le dimanche prochain, alors que certainement une étape importante pour l'emplacement, est plus comme la rotation d'une page dans un livre déjà extrêmement long, un bien plus ancien que la nation.


1643: Pionniers et carnage


Janv. Jansen Damen, qui est venu de Hollande autour de 1630 pour aider à installer la nouvelle colonie, était plus que juste un fermier simple. Le premier propriétaire européen de ce qui deviendrait plus tard une partie de l'emplacement de centre commercial mondial a eu des ambitions beaucoup plus grandes.


Comme un atout tôt de Donald, Damen a eu une soif pour la terre et la richesse. Il a poussé agressivement pour fixer des engagements de Dutch West India Company pour des concessions ou les baux de la propriété ont localisé le nord juste de la barricade qui était Wall Street. Au-dessous de cette barrière était tout le New York arrangé, la terre où les pionniers avaient construit leur brut, maisons en bois-couvertes.


Quand l'ennui est venu sous forme d'attaques indiennes sur des colons, le gouverneur hollandais s'est tourné vers Damen pour le conseil, l'appelant en 1641 au premier conseil de direction local de New York, connu sous le nom de douze hommes.


Le Président du conseil, David Pietersen De Vries, Gov. Willem Kieft recommandé à être patient, en tant que colonie minuscule, avec peu sous forme de bras ou de soldats, était vulnérable et "les Indiens, bien qu'assez l'adresse, ne fasse aucun mal à moins que le mal aient été faits à eux."


Damen n'a pas convenu. Sa terre, au bord du secteur arrangé, était particulièrement vulnérable. En février 1643, les comptes écrits alors indiquent, Damen et deux autres membres des douze hommes a amusé le gouverneur avec la conversation et le vin et l'a rappelé que les Indiens ne s'étaient pas conformés à ses demandes pour faire des réparations pour des attaques récentes. "Dieu ayant maintenant fourni l'ennemi évidemment dans nos mains, nous vous sollicitons pour nous permettre de les attaquer," elles avons écrit dans le Néerlandais, dans un document qui survit aujourd'hui.


DeVries essayé pour calmer le Gouverneur Kieft: "vous allez casser les têtes des Indiens; c'est notre nation que vous êtes sur le point pour détruire." Mais le gouverneur était en désaccord. Il était temps, il a résolu, "pour faire aux sauvages le chiffon leurs coups de hache."


L'assaut, qui a eu lieu au sujet du minuit fév. 25, 1643, dans la ville du Jersey, puis a appelé Pavonia, et au crochet de Corlears, partie maintenant du côté est inférieur, était une affaire extraordinairement horrible. des "enfants en bas âge ont été déchirés des seins de leurs mères et entaillé aux morceaux," DeVries se relie en son journal. D'autres "sont venus courant à nous du pays, faisant découper leurs mains; certains ont perdu des bras et des jambes; certains soutenaient leurs entrailles avec leurs mains, alors que d'autres étaient mangled d'autres manières horribles trop horribles pour être conçu." En tout, plus de 100 ont été tués.


Les tribus indiennes de la région ont uni contre le Gouverneur Kieft et les colons. Damen a été surnommé "le surveillant d'église avec le sang sur ses mains," et expulsé du conseil de direction local. Le gouverneur a été finalement rappelé par le Néerlandais. La colonie, sur deux ans d'attaques de représailles, est descendue à un état désespéré.


"presque chaque endroit est abandonné," un groupe de colons a écrit aux autorités en Hollande vers la fin de 1643. "nous, les personnes misérables, devons skulk, avec des épouses et des enfants qui survivent toujours, dans la pauvreté ensemble, dans et autour du fort chez le Manahatas, où nous ne sommes pas sûrs même pendant une heure tandis que le journal d'Indiens menacent de nous accabler."


Damen mort environ 1650. Ses héritiers ont vendu sa propriété à deux hommes: Oloff Stevensen Van Cortlandt, un brasseur et un soldat jetable dans la milice occidentale hollandaise de l'Inde, et Dirck Dey, un fermier et brander de bétail. Leurs noms ont été finalement assignés aux rues à l'emplacement central commercial. Damen a été perdu à l'histoire.


1776: Du feu, une terre en friche


Plus qu'un siècle avaient passé depuis la guerre avec les Indiens. Mais car le vent a soufflé dur une nuit en 1776, le nord-ouest mobile à travers Manhattan inférieure, un autre désastre était sur le point de dévoiler.


Le Néerlandais depuis longtemps avait perdu la commande de New York et l'emplacement du centre du commerce de futur avait pris une forme beaucoup plus moderne. Le moulin à vent qu'un Néerlandais a appelé Pieter Mesier avait construit là dans 1682 immobiles tenus. Mais la rue d'église avait été présentée avant 1695, suivi de Cortlandt Street en 1733 et rue de Vesey, baptisée du nom de William Vesey, le premier recteur à l'église de trinité, en 1761. Sur l'extrémité méridionale de l'emplacement, le statut de New York se reflétant en tant que colonie britannique, était la rue de couronne - qui a été retitrée rue de liberté en 1794.


Des rangées de petites maisons occupées par des artisans et des travailleurs avaient été établies le long de ces rues boueuses et arbre-rayées. Un bac de bateau à voiles qui s'est écarté du pied de la rue de Cortlandt a relié New York au crochet de Paulus, New Jersey, où une diligence de deux jours pourrait être prise à Philadelphie. La terre marshy au bord de la vieille ferme de Damen avait été complétée, presque élargissant l'île à la rue de Washington.


La nuit venteuse septembre de 21, 1776, tout ce sens d'ordre a été détruit.


Les événements ont commencé environ 1 heure du matin du côté oriental de Broadway, près de la glissade de Whitehall. Comment le feu commencé a été discuté pendant des années. Beaucoup ont blâmé les soldats britanniques qui avaient occupé la ville au début du révolutionnaire que War. Other a suggéré que c'ait été des rebelles, y compris Nathan vigoureux, qui a été exécuté pour être un espion après avoir été interrogé au sujet du feu.


De toute façon, les conséquences étaient claires. Les rafales ont éventé une petite flamme et l'ont portée nord et ouest, vers l'emplacement central commercial. Comme feu Broadway croisé, église de trinité est tombé aux flammes.


Le feu a poussé à travers les maisons rayant des rues de Cortlandt, de Dey et de Vesey. les "plusieurs femmes et enfants ont péri dans le feu, leurs cris perçants, jointifs à hurler des flammes, l'accident des maisons en chute et la ruine répandue qui est apparues partout, formée une scène d'horreur grande au delà de la description, et qui était encore intensifiée par l'obscurité de la nuit," lisez un compte édité dans le mercure de New York.


Le feu n'a pas été maîtrisé jusqu'à presque 11 heures du matin le jour suivant. De 500 à 1.000 maisons, un quart de la ville arrangée, ont été ruinées.


La reconstruction est venue, comme elle a eu avant, mais cette fois, elle n'était pas immédiate. L'emplacement étendu intact pendant beaucoup d'années, et est bientôt devenu notoire comme zone brûlée.


1807: Pleine Vapeur En avant


La fumée s'est encore levée de l'emplacement un matin de septembre en 1807, émanant de quels spectateurs ont décrit en tant que certain genre de monstre de mer, sifflant en colère et éclaboussant environ au dock de rue de Cortlandt. Mais cette fumée était un plume de progrès.


Robert là tenu Fulton, à bord de l'invention folle qu'il a promise porterait un bateau complètement des passagers en voyage exprès vers le haut du fleuve de Hudson à Albany. Le Clermont, comme métier de Fulton viendrait pour s'appeler, brûlait vers le haut des noeuds de pin comme carburant et employait la vapeur pour tourner une turbine qui barboterait le navire. Mais car les passagers sceptiques ont attendu la croisière pour commencer, Fulton, qui avait essayé et avait échoué avant en tant qu'inventeur avec les modèles tôt pour un sous-marin et une torpille, a commencé à suer. La fumée noire s'est renversée de la cheminée et le moteur a sifflé. Le bateau a vacillé en avant et s'est arrêté.


Le broutement parmi la foule était que l'arrêt serait un échec. Mais Fulton, se tenant fièrement sur la plate-forme avec des yeux clignotant, a écarté les naysayers. des "messieurs, vous n'avez pas besoin d'être incommode; vous serez à Albany avant douze heures demain."


Après un ajustement désespéré des machines, les palettes ont démarré pour tourner. Dans celui instantané, le monde s'est rétréci.


Fulton n'était pas le premier pour construire un navire à vapeur, mais le premier pour transformer un navire à vapeur fonctionnant en entreprise commerciale. Bien que le steamboat n'ait pas entièrement remplacé le bateau à voiles commercial pour presque un siècle, là à l'emplacement central commercial, une variation fondamentale dans la civilisation s'était produite.


Le service régulier de navire à vapeur avait été maintenant établi entre le pilier de rue de Cortlandt et Albany. Peu après, une corde d'autres services de bac commençant courir à une variété de destinations. Des piliers ont été construits tous le long du côté occidental, car les navires à vapeur pourraient plus facilement manoeuvrer dans les eaux ouvertes du Hudson. Par le milieu du 19ème siècle, l'emplacement était devenu pas simplement le point de lancement pour les voyages régionaux courts mais également la tache d'embarkment pour la nation et le monde.


1850's: Un Emporium Se lève


Par des dizaines de milliers de nouveau Yorkers voyageant maintenant tous les ans au bord de mer de fleuve de Hudson, les maisons établies pour remplacer la zone brûlée rapidement étaient remplacées. Des structures plus grandes montaient, en particulier pendant 1851, quand les embouteillages sur Cortlandt et Dey se sont développés si intense la ville décidée pour élargir les rues.


The new structures were only three or four stories tall. But on the once-sleepy riverside streets emerged an emporium unlike any the world had seen. For the steam engine was not just powering ferries: factories were now using machines to mass-produce goods. The Industrial Revolution had arrived, right at a spot that would one day be called ground zero.


Bigelow Company sold boilers at 85 Liberty, Brill & Lenihan sold pencil cases at 91 Liberty, Otis G. Barnap sold railroad supplies at 93 Liberty and Nathan & Dreyfus sold brass goods at 108 Liberty, while John A. Roebling's Sons Company, the builder of the Brooklyn Bridge, sold wire at 117-121 Liberty. By 1860, an astounding one-third of all exports from the United States and more than two thirds of the imports passed through New York, much of it at the nearby Hudson River piers.


If Liberty Street was a manufacturing mecca, Cortlandt Street was a precursor to Herald Square. Merchants like Richards Kingsland sold looking glasses, Ferdinand Thieriot sold pocket watches, Rea & Pollock sold stoves and S. H. Wakeman offered perfume. Squeezed in between were the barber shops and boarding houses, including one of the city's biggest and most renowned, the Old Merchant's Hotel, at 41 Cortlandt.


Others who set up shop included doctors like Dr. Ralph, at 38 Cortlandt Street, who specialized in cures to "certain delicate diseases," like syphilis and gonorrhea, and Madame Restell, at 148 Greenwich Street, who became the nation's most famous abortionist. Part of Church Street became notorious for its brothels.


But no single place at the site drew more traffic than the chaotic complex of buildings near the corner of Vesey and West Streets. The cluster had started in 1771 under the name Bear Market, with a handful of vendors, angry about being so far from the bustle of Broadway.


But by the mid-19th century, what was now known as Washington Market had morphed into not only the biggest market in the city, but the biggest wholesale produce market in the country. Some 886 different stands sold fish, meats, poultry, preserves, coffee, butter, eggs, fruit, nuts and countless other items. The spot was so popular that merchants erected shanties on the sidewalk and then into West Street, turning the city's most congested street into a narrow passageway.


Piles of oyster shells, rotting vegetables, putrid meat and fish, as well as tons of trash dumped from the ships and manure from horse-drawn carriages, produced an odor that in summer was unbearable. Blood and animal refuse, the byproduct of butchering, flowed into the sewers. "A plague spot demanding excision," the Metropolitan Board of Health declared in 1866, launching a campaign to clean up the market. This led to the opening of annexes on West Street further north, including the precursor to what is still called the meatpacking district.


Thanks to that burst of commerce, New Yorkers began to feel a certain bravado. The tiny Dutch colony had by 1870 hatched into a metropolis (comprising both New York and Brooklyn, still separate cities) of 1.3 million. Trinity Church, rebuilt twice since the 1776 fire, was still the city's tallest structure. But something called the office building was arriving on scene. Starting in 1890, when the New York World tower opened across Broadway from the trade center site, it was the first to grab the crown of "world's tallest, " which would be passed around the neighborhood. The course was now clear. New York was charging ahead, and its commercial towers, not its churches, would dominate the sky.


"We are not permitted to take a narrow view of its future greatness," said the New York Harbor Commission report of 1854. It seemed to the commission that New York's "commerce will be greater than that of any city in ancient or in modern times, that it must become the centre of trade and exchanges, the storehouse and metropolis of the commercial world."


The Port Authority in the 1960's used just such breathless statements when it proposed the World Trade Center. "A new era of commerce will dawn on old Mannahatta when the Trade Center rises," a Port Authority brochure said, adding, "the island and its people, however, are accustomed to new eras."


Eric Lipton, a reporter for The New York Times, is the author, with James Glanz, of "City in the Sky: The Rise and Fall of the World Trade Center.''

Copyright 2004 The New York Times Company | Home | Privacy Policy | Search | Corrections | Help | Back to Top

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